Stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of tissue and organs. Research on their use in medicine has been conducted for many years, and our knowledge of how to use them effectively is growing year by year. Stem cells have been used mainly in the treatment of patients suffering from cancer and immune system disorders.
MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS (MSC)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently the greatest hope for effective treatments. Thanks to their exceptional ability to proliferate and differentiate into many types of cells, they can be used in the treatment of a variety of conditions of the skeletal, vascular and nervous systems, as well as the heart and urinary tract. They release a number of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines which directly affect other cells in their proximity, aiding in the regeneration process.
One of the methods for acquiring stem cells for medical use is their isolation from mature tissues such as fatty tissues or bone marrow. MSCs which are acquired from the umbilical cord (Wharton's jelly) have the characteristics of embryonic stem cells, and as the youngest cells seem to be ideal for many applications in regenerative medicine. They feature low immunogenicity, meaning that the can be used in the treatment of individuals not related to their donors.
ADVANCED THERAPY MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products, or ATMP, are medicines prepared on demand by a doctor from mesenchymal cells of Wharton's jelly.
These cells are acquired from Wharton's jelly, a type of tissue exclusively found in the umbilical cord. The cells are next cultivated in vitro in a GMP class laboratory and subjected to a special freezing process calledcryopreservation, during which they are placed in an ultra-low temperature of minus 1500 Celsius, and then stored until they are administered to the patient for whom they were created.